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Niewłaściwa forma imienia boskiego
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Wysłany: 2012-03-18, 20:42   Niewłaściwa forma imienia boskiego

Wiem, ze na ten temat bylo juz wiele, ale pozwolilem sobie utworzyc nowy watek, poniewaz moja intencja bylo glownie sprawdzenie, co na temat form Jahwe/Jehowa mowia wspolczesne, naukowe: Leksykony, Slowniki, Encyklopedie itd. Wszystkie cytaty podaje w niezmienionej formie i nieprzetlumaczone, jedynie podkreślenia tekstu sa dodane przeze mnie. Zamieszczam kompletne teksty hasel, gdyż dla wielu mogą okazac się bardzo użyteczne.

Na poczatek nasza dobrze znana "Multimedialna encyklopedia powszechna PWN. Edycja 2006".

Cytat:
Jehowa, niewłaściwa forma imienia boskiego Jahwe; powstała prawdopodobnie w XI w. z prób odczytania przez chrześcijan samogłosek tetragramu JHWH.

Jahwe, forma uznana za właściwą wymowę jednego z imion Boga Izraela, jakie pojawiają się w Biblii hebrajskiej — tam imię to jest zapisywane za pomocą 4 spółgłosek (tetragram) JHWH; w Starym Testamencie imię Boga Izraela, który objawił się Mojżeszowi i zawarł z ludem Izraela przymierze na Synaju, a potem opiekował się nim, żądając wyłączności wiary i kultu oraz życia zgodnego z przykazaniami; w ukształtowanym monoteizmie żyd. (judaizm) imię Boga uniwersalnego, jedynego, niewidzialnego stwórcy i pana Wszechświata; imieniu Jahwe przypisywano świętość i siłę; w judaizmie w okresie pobibl. obowiązywał zakaz jego wymawiania, a przy recytacji tekstów bibl. i liturgicznych tetragram wymawiano się jako Adonaj [‘mój Pan’].
 
 
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THE HEBREW AND ARAMAIC LEXICON
OF THE OLD TESTAMENT

by
Ludwig Koehler And Walter Baumgartner

Subsequently Revised By
Walter Baumgartner And Johann Jakob Stamm

With Assistance From
Benedikt Hartmann • Ze'ev Ben-Hayyim
Eduard Yechezkel Kutscher • Philippe Reymond

Translated And Edited
Under The Supervision Of
M.E.J. Richardson

BRILL


Cytat:
3594 hwhy

hwhy: ndiv. Yahweh; Baudissin Kyr. 1-4; RGG 3:515f; Eichrodt 1:116ff; Ringgren Religion 58ff; THAT 1:701ff.

—1. forms: a) (Driver ZAW 46:7ff; Albright JBL 43:370ff) first instances Gn 24 426; pronounced as yn"doa] in MT, &iuml; !Ada', since first century AD (Baudissin 2:305f: even earlier; Rudolph 231f, on Lam 331); editions consequently hA'hy>, Leningrad hw"hy>, from which BH3 and BHS; usu. understood as am'v., Arm. for ~Veh; (Baudissin 2:124f) :: Katz ThZ 4:467f; Alfrink 5:72ff: having become unpronounceable; when together with yn"doa] rd. as “Elohim” hwIhy>, hAihy> and hwIhyle Ps 6821 † (Baudissin 1:590); b) Jehovah, wrong pronunciation, improperly mixing K and Q, generally used since ca. 1500; first reference in 1381 (Eissfeldt Kl. Schr. 1:1674); pronunciation yn"doa] leads to writing hwhyB;&AElig;w:&AElig;K;&AElig;l;; pronounced ba&Agrave;-dona&Ograve;i etc. (or byahweh etc.), hw"hy>me (Lam 29), pronounced me&Ograve;&Agrave;&not;do&Ograve;na&Ograve;y or miyyahweh; c) that *yahweh was the original form (Fohrer Geschichte 63, :: LDelekat Fschr. Kuhn 23ff: orig. ya&Ograve;ho&Ograve;/u&Ograve;) is shown i) by the play on words with hy<h.a, Ex 314; ii) by the transcription Iaouai/e in Clement of Alexandria Stromata 5:6, 34 (Baudissin 2:116f :: Ganschinietz in Pauly-W. 9:700: Iaou); iii) by the transcription Iabe in Field on Ex 63 (Baudissin 2:222f); d) in names in which hwhy is the final element, *yahweh changes to yahw (cf. hB,v.yI > jussive B.v.yI) and *ya&Ograve;Ähu&Ograve;, (cf. hw<x]T;v.yI > WxT;&ntilde;v.yI, and Wxf'&ntilde; swimming < *s&Atilde;ah&Igrave;w, Bauer-L. Heb. 420k, 576g), and Why"&ntilde;n>t;n> reduced > hy"n>t;n>; word initially *ya&Ograve;hu&Ograve; > *yhu&Ograve; < yho&Ograve; (dissimilated or back-formation < yo&Ograve; ?): !t'n"Ahy> > !t'n"Ay; before u&Ograve; dissimilated > ye&Ograve; &iuml; [;WvyE and aWhyE (?); according to others (Baudissin 2:1955; Hehn 228) Why" was an independent word, with Hy"&AElig;hy". as short forms.

—2. non-Biblical instances (Wb. Myth. 1:291f; Murtonen Appearance; Cross HTR 55:225ff); cf. n.terr. Yhw&Agrave; (Malamat Syr. Pal.; Fischer Weltgesch. 3:34819; a) hwhy: Mesha. 18; Lachish (along with hy) T. Arad. † b) why: EgArm. (Vincent 25ff), jar stamp from Israel (here read dhy, Reicke-R. Hw. 1863); c) hhy: EgArm. (Cowley Arm. Pap. 290a; Sachau Arm. Pap. 9f); d) hy: Lachish, EgArm.; &iuml; Hy"; e) ? Ug. yw (Gordon Textbook §19:1084; Aistleitner 1151; Driver Myths 124; de Moor 118f; Gese-H. Religionen 55f :: ThR 13:159f; Murtonen Divine Names 49f); f) ? Akk. (KAT 3:465ff) ya&Ograve;um-ilu (:: ya&Ograve;&Agrave;um ya&Ograve;wum, “my” AHw. 413a !), ya&Ograve;ma, &iuml; Eissfeldt Kl. Schr. 2:81ff; g) Nab. wyha&iquest;db[&Agrave; ndiv. Cantineau 2:57a, 125b :: Alt Kl. Schr. 1:61; h) ? Hellenistic gnostic: Yao, Greek lit. and magical papyri (Baudissin 4:87; Pauly-W. (Kl.) 2:1314ff).

—3. etymology controversial; Freedman JBL 79:151ff; a) as impf: i) &iuml; I hwh to blow, fall, hif. to destroy; ii) II hwh to be, Eichrodt 1:117f; hif. to call into existence, Albright Steinzeit 259ff; iii) III hwh to be passionate, act passionately, Goitein VT 6:1ff; iv) Ug. hwt to speak, Bowman JNES 3:1ff.; b) sbst.: being, Koehler WdO 1:405; c) call ecstatically, ROtto Gefühl 210, 326; Mowinckel HUCA 32:121ff.

—4. distribution (Vetter ThQ 85:12ff): ca. 6800 times; never in Qoh or Est (but 414 rxea; ~AqM'mi), rarely in Da (94 .8.14.14 &iuml; Montgomery 360), frequent in Ps and historical books, very frequent in Is Jr Ezk.

—5. phrases: a) ~yhil{a/ &Aring;y Gn 24-3:23 combination of sources, &iuml; Commentaries :: Murtonen Divine Names 67ff: construct state; &iuml; Gesenius 580a; &Aring;l{a/h' &Aring;y 1S 620 (+ 3 times); &Aring;rf.yI yhel{a/ &Aring;y Jos 1414 and the like; b) yn"doa] hwIhy> Dt 324 and yn"doa] hwIhy> Hab 319 (Gesenius 580b, see above 1a); c) tAab'c. &Aring;y, construct state (Maag Fschr. Koehler 27ff; Murtonen Divine Names 74ff; Eissfeldt Kl. Schr. 3:103ff :: KBL) &iuml; I ab'c' B; d) ha,r>yI &Aring;y Gn 2214, &iuml; har 10; e) ySinI &Aring;y Ex 1715, &iuml; snE; f) Wnqed>ci &Aring;y Jr 236 3316 (qd,c,, Rudolph 135); g) ~Alv' &Aring;y Ju 624 (Eissfeldt Kl. Schr. 2:146); h) hM'v†' &Aring;y Ezk 4835.

—6. &Aring;y incorrectly for first sing. suffix: Ju 1918 rd. ytiyBe for &Aring;y tyBe :: rd. &Aring;y for sf.; Jr 95 yta rd. &Aring;y-ta (Kennedy 173; Volz Jer. xi; Seeligmann 66).
 
 
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THEOLOGICAL WORDBOOK
OF THE
OLD TESTAMENT
Volumes 1 & 2

R. Laird Harris, Editor
Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Associate Editor
Bruce K. Waltke, Associate Editor

MOODY PRESS
CHICAGO

Cytat:
(484b) Hy" (y&sup1;h) Yahweh.

The root signifies either existence, e.g. of a tree trunk, being at rest where it falls (Eccl 11:3), or development, e.g. of Nehemiah's alleged scheme to become king of Judah (Neh 6:6). Only three other instances of h&sup1;wâ II are preserved in the Hebrew OT (Gen 27:29; Eccl 2:22; Isa 16:4), though h&sup1;w&sup1;° remains as the standard form of the verb "to be" in biblical Aramaic.

Yahweh. The Tetragrammaton YHWH, the LORD, or Yahweh, the personal name of God and his most frequent designation in Scripture, occurring 5321 times (TDNT, III, p. 1067) in the OT (KJV and ASV, the Lord, or, in those contexts where the actual title "Lord" also occurs, GOD, except KJV, Jehovah, in seven passages where the name is particularly stressed (Exo 6:3; Psa 83:18 [H 19]; Isa 12:2; Isa 26:4] or combined with other elements, such as Jehovah Jireh (Gen 22:14; cc Exo 17:15; Jud 6:24; ASV, consistently Jehovah)).

y&sup1;h. A contracted form of Yahweh. Occurs fifty times (rendered in English as above, except KJV, Jah, in Psa 68:4 [H 5], where the name is particularly stressed).

Also numerous proper nouns compounded with shortened forms of the divine name "Yahweh," e.g.: y®hôn&sup1;t&sup1;n, Jehonathan, "Yahweh has given"; abbreviated yôn&sup1;t&sup1;n "Jonathan," a substitute name for the same person (compare 1Sam 13:2-3 with 1Sam 14:6, 8; 2Sam 17:17, 20 with 1Kings 1:42-43); and y®hôsh&sup1;p&sup1;t, Jehoshaphat, "Yahweh has judged"; alternatively yôsh&sup1;p&sup1;t, "Joshaphat," applied only to two subordinates of David (1Chr 11:43; 1Chr 15:24).

The theological importance of h&sup1;wâ II stems from its derived nouns, which identify the personal name of deity, Yahweh, or its contractions.

The tetragrammaton YHWH is not ordinarily written with its appropriate Hebrew vowels. But that the original pronunciation was YaHWeH seems probable, both from the corresponding verbal form, the imperfect of h&sup1;wâ, anciently yahweh, and from later representation of YHWH in Greek iaoue or iabe. An apocopated form of h&sup1;wâ in the imperfect, that occurs in Eccl 11:3, is y®h&ucirc;° (otiose aleph, GKC, p. 211). This in turn may account for the shorter name YHW in the fifth century B.C. Elephantine papyri and the initial elements, y®hô-, yô-, and y&cent;- (KB, p. 369) in such names as Jehozadak, "Yahweh (is) righteous," or Joel, "Yahweh (is) God.".

[An alternative possibility for the original pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton should be mentioned. Actually, there is a problem with the pronunciation "Yahweh." It is a strange combination of old and late elements. The first extra-Biblical occurrence of the name is in the Moabite Stone of about 850 B.C. At that time vowel letters were just beginning to be used in Hebrew. If YHWH represents a spelling earlier than 900 B.C. (as would seem likely), the final " h " should have been pronounced. The pronunciation Yahweh assumes the ending of a lamed-he verb, but these verbs in Moses' day ended in a " y " (cf. for b&sup1;nâ the Ug. impf. ybny). So the ending " eh " is a late form. But in Hebrew in late times a " w " that began a word or syllable changed to " y " (as in the pe-waw verbs and the verb h&sup1;yâ itself). So the " w " of Yahweh represents a pre-mosaic pronunciation but the final " eh " represents probably a post-davidic form.

In view of these problems it may be best simply to say that YHWH does not come from the verb h&sup1;wâ (presumably hawaya in its early form) at all. There are many places in the OT where it is now recognized that the parallel of a name and its meaning is not necessarily etymological. For instance, 1Sam 1:20 probably does not mean that the name Samuel is derived from the verb sh&sup1;ma± "to hear." Genesis 11:9 does not mean that Babel comes from the verb b&sup1;lal "confusion" but only that the two words sound somewhat alike. Likewise Jacob is said to mean both "heel" (Gen 25:26) and "supplanter" (Gen 27:36). There are many other examples of this device which is to be taken as a paranomasia, a play on words, rather than as an etymology. Therefore we may well hold that YHWH does not come from the verb h&sup1;wâ which is cited in the first person °ehyeh "I will be," but is an old word of unknown origin which sounded something like what the verb h&sup1;wâ sounded in Moses' day. In this case we do not know what the pronunciation was; we can only speculate. However, if the word were spelled with four letters in Moses' day, we would expect it to have had more than two syllables, for at that period there were no vowel letters. All the letters were sounded.

At the end of the OT period the Elephantine papyri write the word YHW to be read either y&sup1;h&ucirc; (as in names like Shemayahu) or y&sup1;hô (as in names like Jehozadek). The pronunciation y&sup1;hô would be favored by the later Greek from iaœ found in Qumran Greek fragments (2d or 1st centuries B.C.) and in Gnostic materials of the first Christian centuries. Theodoret in the fourth century A.D. states that the Samaritans pronounced it iabe. Clement of Alexandria (early 3d century A.D.) vocalized it as iaoue. These are quite late witnesses and seem to contradict the much earlier Jewish witness of Elephantine and the name elements, none of which end in " eh.".

As to the meaning of the name, we are safer if we find the character of God from his works and from the descriptions of him in the Scripture rather than to depend on a questionable etymology of his name. See further the writer's remarks in "The Pronunciation of the Tetragram" in The Law and the Prophets, J. H. Skilton, ed., Presbyterian & Reformed, 1974, pp. 215-24. R.L.H.].

Among the commonest names with this element are y®hôn&sup1;t&sup1;n "Jonathan," the name of seventeen different OT characters (ISBE, III, pp. 1580, 1730). These include Moses' treacherous (great) grandson Jonathan (Jud 18:30, ASV), David's faithful friend Jonathan, the son of Saul (1Sam 18:1), and David's young courier Jonathan the son of Abiathar (2Sam 15:27; 1Kings 1:42). y®hôsh&sup1;p&sup1;t "Jehoshaphat," identifies six individuals (ISBE, III, pp. 1581-1582, 1743), including Israel's recorder under David and Solomon (2Sam 8:16; 1Kings 4:3) and Judah's fourth king after the division, 872-848 B.C. The name reappears in Joel's prediction of the Valley of Jehoshaphat (Joe) Joel 3:2, 12 [H4 2,12]), where God will overcome the nations gathered to oppose his advent in glory. But rather than designating the site of King Jehoshaphat's ancient victory (Beracah between Hebron and Bethlehem, 2Chr 20:26), this title seems to identify a spot beside Jerusalem (Joel 3:17 [H 4.17]), traditionally the Kidron, below Olivet (Zech 14:4). It may be less a place name than prophecy's description of the event of y®hôsh&sup1;p&sup1;t ; "Yahweh has judged.".

y®hôsh&ucirc;&brvbar;-y&cent;sh&ucirc;&brvbar;± designates ten Hebrew leaders (ISBE, III, pp. 1622, 1743) from Moses' successor Joshua (KJV, Jehoshua in Num 13:16; 1Chr 7:27) to the post-exilic high priest Jeshua (Ezra 3:2; Neh 12:10). The former's name was changed from the Hiphil infinitive, Hoshea, "salvation," to Joshua, with its deeper spiritual connotation of "Yahweh (is) salvation" (Num 13:8, 16). Both men are called "Jesus" in Greek (Acts 7:45; 1Esd 5:48), i.e., yesh&ucirc;a± is our Lord's Hebrew name, "for he will save his people from their sins" (Mt 1:21). This may be a shortened form with the divine element omitted, meaning "he will save.".

The shortened independent form of the divine name, Yah, occurs primarily in poetry and in the exclamation, Hallelu-yah, praise Yahweh. It serves also as a terminal element in proper nouns like Elijah: " °&cent;lîyâ (or °&cent;lîy&sup1;h&ucirc;), "God (is) Yahweh.".

In the post-biblical period, reverence for the ineffable name "Yahweh" caused it to be supplanted in synagogue reading (but not in writing) with the noun °&brvbar;dœn&sup1;y, "my master," or Lord. Next, when medieval Jewish scholars began to insert vowels to accompany the consonantal OT text, they added to YHWH the Masoretic vowel points for °&brvbar;dœn&sup1;y ; and the actual writing became an impossible Y&brvbar;HœW&sup1;H, the ASV "Jehovah.".

God's name identifies his nature, so that a request for his "name" is equivalent to asking about his character (Exo 3:13; Hos 12:5 [H 6]). Critical speculation about the origin and meaning of "Yahweh" seems endless (cf. L. Kbhler, OT Theology, pp. 4246; IDB, 11, pp. 409-11); but the Bible's own explanation in Exo 3:14 is that it represents the simple (Qal) imperfect of h&sup1;wâ "to be," I am [is] what I am. The precise name Yahweh results when others speak of him in the third person, yahweh "He is." Albright, it is true, has championed a causative rendering, "I cause to be, I create" (From the Stone Age to Christianity, 2d ed., 1946, p. 198; D. N. Freedman, JBL, 79: 151-56); but this is rightly criticized as "conjuring up a nonexistent Hiphil form" (N. Walker, JBL, 79: 277).

Some have gone on to suggest that the Qal meaning of Yahweh must be God's unchangeableness toward his people (Exo 3:15; G. Vos, Biblical Theology, p. 134). But, as Moses himself indicated (Exo 3:13), the fact that he was the ancient God of the fathers was insufficient to answer Israel's need at that time; and, in any event, the OT has little to say concerning abstractions such as "the changelessness of deity" (though in the NT Jesus did use Exo 3:14 to introduce the thought of his eternal divine existence, Jn 8:58), God's immediately preceding promise to Moses had been, "Certainly I will be with you" (Exo 3:12). So his assertion in verse 14 would seem to be saying, "I am present is what I am." Indeed, the fundamental promise of his testament is, "I will be their God, and they will be my people" (Exo 6:7; etc.; contrast Hos 1:9); thus "Yahweh," "faithful presence," is God's testamentary nature, or name (Exo 6:2, 4; Deut 7:9; Isa 26:4).

The use of Yahweh as a divine name goes back to earliest times (Gen 4:1, 26; Gen 9:26), although the documentation for its employment among other early cultures appears questionable (IDB, II, p. 409). In Exo 6:3 the Lord explains to Moses that by his name Yahweh he had not been "known" to the patriarchs, meaning "know" (see y&sup1;da±) in its fullest sense: the name was in use (Gen 12:8; Gen 15:2, 7, 8) but was not appreciated in the redemptive significance that it acquired under Moses (J. A. Motyer, The Revelation of the Divine Name). For even the so-called P document, which critics have hypothesized as contradicting the Bible's claims to the earlier use of Yahweh (ibid., pp. 3-6), utilizes it in premosaic proper nouns (Jochebed, Exo 6:20; Num 26:59).

Commencing with the later judges (1Sam 1:3), the name Yahweh is often combined with ƒ®b&sup1;°ôt, "hosts" (armies, q.v.). The Tetragrammaton occurs in every OT book except Eccl and Est. It appears in the ninth century Moabite inscription of Mesha (line 18). From the eighth century onward the element "Yau-" is employed in Aramaic names and in Mesopotamian references to Hebrew rulers, Only in pre-NT times was God's personal name replaced with the less intimate title °&brvbar;dœn&sup1;y (Gr.,kurios) "Lord.".

Scripture speaks of the Tetragrammaton as "this glorious and fearful name" (Deut 28:58) or simply "the name" (Lev 24:11). But it connotes God's nearness, his concern for man, and the revelation of his redemptive covenant. In Genesis 1 through Genesis 2:3, the general term °§lœhîm (q.v.) "deity," is appropriate for God transcendent in creation; but in Gen 2:4-25 it is Yahweh, the God who is immanent in Eden's revelations. In Gen 9:26-27, Elohim enlarges Japheth, but Yahweh is the God of Shem; the latter is especially used in references to the God of Israel. In Psa 19 the heavens declare the glory of El (vv. I -6); but the law of Yahweh is perfect, and Yahweh is "my strength and my redeemer" (vv. 7-14 [H 8-15]; cf. G. T. Manley, The Book of the Law, p. 41). Yet the distinction is not pervasive: Psalms 14 and Psalms 53 are practically identical except for the divine names employed; book I of the Psalter (Psa 1-41) simply prefers Yahweh, and book II (42-72), Elohim. Ultimately the connotations of the name Yahweh are fulfilled in the "covenant of peace," when the God who has been present from the first will be fully present at the last (Isa 41:4); cf. Ezekiel's stress upon God's "sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore" (Ezek 37:26) and his eschatological city's being named YHWH sh&sup1;mmâ "Yahweh is there."

Bibliography: Abba, R., "The Divine Name Yahweh," JBL 80:320-28. Albright, W. F., Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan, pp. 168-72. Freedman, D. N., "The Name of the God of Moses," JBL 79: 151-56. Harris, R. L., "The Pronunciation of the Tetragram," in The Law and the Prophets, ed. J. H. Skilton, Presbyterian and Reformed, 1974, pp. 215-24. Jacob, E., Theology of the OT, Harper, 1958, pp. 48-54. Motyer, A. J., The Revelation of the Divine Name, London: Tyndale, 1959. Payne, J. B., Theology of the Older Testament, Zondervan, 1962, pp. 147-54. TDNT, III, pp. 1058-81. J.B.P.
 
 
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The Brown-Driver-Briggs
Hebrew and English Lexicon
With an appendix containing the Biblical Aramaic
Based on the lexicon of William Gesenius, as translated by Edward Robinson, and edited with constant reference to the thesauraus of Gesenius as completed by E. Rödiger, and with authorized use of the German editions of Gesenius’ Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament
FRANCIS BROWN, D.D., D. LITT.
with the cooperation of
S.R. DRIVER, D.D., LITT.D. and
CHARLES A. BRIGGS, D.D., D. LITT.
Oxford: Clarendon Press
1907
Cytat:
2314 hwhy (Hebrew) (page 217) (Strong 3068-69,1961,430,589,2022,6635)
hwhy:c. 6823 i.e. hw<h.y: n.pr.dei Yahweh, the proper name of the God of Israel—(1. MT hA'hy>:C518 (Qr yn"doa]), or hAihy/:305 (Qr ~yhil{a/), in the combinations hwhy ynda & ynda hwhy (vid. yn<doa]), and with prep. hA'hyB;, hA'hyl;, hA'hyme (Qr yn"doaB;, yn"doal;, yn"doame), do not give the original form. LXX and other Vrss follow the Qr. On the basis of Ex 20:7, Lv 24:11 hwhy was regarded as a nomen ineffabile (vid. Philo:de Vita Mosis iii. 519, 529), called by the Jews ~Veh; and by the Samaritans amyv. The pronunciation Jehovah was unknown until 1520, when it was introduced by Galatinus; but it was contested by Le Mercier, J. Drusius, and L. Capellus, as against grammatical and historical propriety (cf. Bö:§ 88). The traditional VIabe, of Theodoret and Epiphanius, the Why"-, -Ahy> of compound n.pr. and the contracted form Hy" all favour %w<h.y: (cf. !Wm+l{h]y: Psalm 74:6; Wrh]T; Is 33:11), v.Lag:Sym i.14 Baudissin:Studien i.179 ff.; Dr:Stud.Bib.i.1 ff. For Jeve v. Sta:ZAW 1881, 346 De:ib.1882, 173 f. & Gn. Excurs. ii. 2. on liter. of interpret. v. Nes:Eg.67 Dr:l.c.—Many recent scholars explain hw<h.y: as Hiph. of hyh (= hyh) the one bringing into being, life-giver (cf. hW"x; Gn 3:20) Schr HSch; giver of existence, creator, Kue Tiele; he who brings to pass (so already Le Clerc),performer of his promises, Lag, Nes:Eg.88 (but Nes:Eg.91 inclines to Qal as RS:Brit. & For. Ev. Rev v. infr.); or from hyh he who causes to fall, rain or lightning RS:OTJC.ed.1, 423; om.ed.2, 245, cf. We:Skizzen iii.175; ‘Fäller,’ destroying foes, Sta:G.i.429 (dubiously). But most take it as Qal of hwh (= hyh); the one who is: i.e. the absolute and unchangeable one, Ri ; the existing, ever living, as self-consistent and unchangeable, Di; or the one ever coming into manifestation as the God of redemption, De Oehl; cf. also RS:Brit. & For. Ev. Rev. 1876, he will be it, i.e all that his servants look for (cf. Ew:infr), he will approve himself (give evidence of being, assert his being Dr:l.c.17)).

I. hwhy is not used by E in Gn, but is given Ex 3:12-15 as the name of the God who revealed Himself to Moses at Horeb, and is explained thus : %M+"[i hy<h.a, I shall be with thee (v:12), which is then implied in hy<h.a, rv,a] hy<h.a, I shall be the one who will be it v:14a (i.e: with thee v:12) and then compressed into hy<h.a, v:14b (i.e. with thee v:12), which then is given in the nominal form hwhy He who will be it v:15 (i.e. with thee v:12). Cf. Ew:BTh ii. 337, 338 RS:l.c., Proph. 385 ff. Other interpretations are : I am he who I am, i.e. it is no concern of yours (Le Clerc Lag:Psalt.Hieron.156); I am (this is my name), inasmuch as I am (rv,a] = yKi; AE JD Mich We:JD Th xxi, 540 = Comp.Hex.72); Di al. I am who I am, he who is essentially unnameable, inexplicable,—E uses hwhy sparingly by the side of ~yhla and ~yhlah in his subsequent narrative. The Ephraimitic writers in Ju S K use it in similar proportions. P abstains from the use of hwhy until he gives an account of its revelation to Moses Ex 6:3 ; but subsequently uses it freely. He gives no explanation of its meaning. He represents that yD;v; lae was the God of the patriarchs. J uses hwhy from the beginning of his narrative, possibly explaining it, Gn 21:83 by la ~lw[, the evergreen tamarisk being a symbol of the ever-living God; cf. De Gn 21:33. Elsewhere hwhy is the common divine name in pre-exilic writers, but in post-exilic writers gradually falls into disuse, and is supplanted by ~yhla and ynda. In Job it is used 31 t. in prose parts, and 12:9 (a proverb); not elsewhere in the poem. Chr apart from his sources prefers ~yhla and ~yhlah. Dn uses hwhy only in chap. 9 (7 t.); Ec not at all. In the Elohistic group of Psalm 42-83 it is used 39t. (see ~yhla) . It occurs as the name of Israel's God MI:18. It is doubtful whether it was used by other branches of the Shemitic family, cf. COT Gn 2:4b Dl:Pa 158 ff. Dr:Stud. Bib. i. 7 ff.

II. 1. hwhy is used with ~yhla and suffixes, especially in D; a. with ^yh,l{a/ in the Ten Words Ex 20:2-12 (5 t.) = Dt 5:6-16; in the law of worship of JE, Ex 23:19, 34:24, 34:26; in D 234 t.; Jos 1:9, 1:17, 9:9, 9:24 (D:2); elsewhere Gn 27:20, Ex 15:26 (JE), Ju 6:26; S & K 20 t. 1 Ch 11:2, 22:11, 22:12, 2 Ch 9:8, 9:8, 16:7, Is 7:11, 37:4, 37:4, 41:13, 43:3, 51:15, 55:5, Je 40:2 + (3t.) Ho 12:10, 13:4, 14:2, Am 9:15, Psalm 81:11. b. with ~k,yhel{a/ in D 46 t.; D:2 28 t.; H 15 t.; P 15 t.; elsewhere Ex 23:25 (E); 8:24, 10:8, 10:16, 10:17 (JE); Ju 6:10, 1 S 12:12, 12:14, 2 K 17:39, 23:21, 1 Ch 22:18 + (10 t. Chr) Psalm 76:12, Je 13:16 + (5 t.) Ez 20:5, 20:7, 20:19, 20:20, Jo 2:13 + (6t.) Zc 6:15. c. with Wnyhel{a/ in D 23 t.; in D:2 5 t.; Ex 8:6 (JE) Ex 3:18, 5:3, 8:22, 8:23, 10:25, 10:26 (E) Ju 11:24, 1 S 7:8, 1 K 8:57, 8:59, 8:61, 8:65, 2 K 18:22, 19:10 = Is 36:7, 37:20, 1 Ch 13:2 + (15 t. Chr) Mi 4:5, 7:17, Is 26:13, Je 3:22 + (17 t.) Psalm 20:8, 90:17 (?; Baer ynO'da]); 94:23, 99:5, 99:8, 99:9, 99:9, 105:7, 106:47, 113:5, 122:9, 123:2, Dn 9:10, 9:13, 9:14. d. c. ~h,yhel{a/ Ex 10:7 (J) Ex 29:46, 29:46, Lv 26:44 (P) Ju 3:7, 8:34, 1 S 12:9; 1 K 9:9 , 2 K 17:7, 17:9, 17:14, 17:16, 17:19, 18:12, 2 Ch 31:6, 33:17, 34:33, Ne 9:3, 9:3, 9:4, Je 3:21, 22:9, 30:9, 43:1, 43:1, 50:4, Ez 28:26, 34:30, 39:22, 39:28, Ho 1:7, 3:5, 7:10, Zp 2:7, Hag 1:12, 1:12, Zc 9:16, 10:6. e. with wyh'l{a/ Nu 23:21 (E) Ex 32:11 (J) Lv 4:22 (P) Dt 17:19, 18:7, 1 S 30:6, 1 K 5:17, 11:4, 15:3, 15:4, 2 K 5:11, 16:2, 2 Ch 1:1 + 13 t. Chr; Mi 5:3, Je 7:28, Psalm 33:12, 144:15, 146:5, Jon 2:2. f. with yh;l{a/ Nu 22:18 (JE) Dt 4:5, 18:16, 26:14, Jos 14:8, 14:9, 2 S 24:24, 1 K 3:7, 5:18, 5:19, 8:28, 17:20, 17:21, 1 Ch 21:17, 22:7, 2 Ch 2:3, 6:19, Ezr 7:28, 9:5, Psalm 7:2, 7:4, 13:4, 18:29, 30:3, 30:13, 35:24, 40:6, 104:1, 109:26, Is 25:1, Je 31:18, Dn 9:4, 9:20, Jon 2:7, Hab 1:12, Zc 11:4, 13:9, 14:5. g. with %yIh;~a/ Is 60:9, Je 2:17, 2:19, 3:13, Mi 7:10, Zp 3:17. h. with ~yhla, probably always due to later editors, or to a Qr which has crept into the text Gn 2:4b—3:23 (J, 20 t. either ~yhla inserted by R:P as Di De; or hwhy inserted by J in an older source); Ex 9:30 (J, but not in LXX Sam.; Sam. hwhy ynda; possibly MT from earlier Qr, & Sam. from later Qr); 2 S 7:22, 7:25, (LXX hwhy ynda and 1 Ch 17:20 -23 only hwhy); 1 Ch 17:16, 17:17 (but 2 S 7:18, 7:19 hwhy ynda) 1 Ch 28:20, 29:1, 2 Ch 1:9, 6:41, 6:41, 6:42, 26:18 (but in the original Psalm 132:8 stood hwhy (so Hebrew (consonantal text)), or else no divine name); Psalm 72:18 (the late doxology) 84:12 (but it makes the line too long); Jon 4:6. For the combinations with other divine names see those names. 2. the phrase † hwhy ynIa] is noteworthy:—a. after rma either alone Ex 6:2; 6:29 (P) or before relative and other clauses: Gn 28:13 (J) 15:7 (R) Ex 6:6 (P) with ~kyhla Ju 6:10, Ez 20:5. b. after yk [dy (a) Ex 7:17, 8:18, 10:2 (J); Ex 7:5, 14:4, 14:18 (P); 1 K 20:13, 20:28, Je 24:7, Ez 6:7 + 48 t. Ez; (b) with ~kyhla Ex 6:7, 16:12, Dt 29:5 (P) Ex 20:20, Jo 4:17; (g) with ~hyhla Ex 29:46, (P) Ez 28:26, 34:30, 39:22, 39:28, (d) before relative and other clauses Is 45:3, 49:23, 49:26, 60:16, Ez 7:9, 17:24, 21:10, 22:22, 35:12, 36:36; (e) with various forms of vdq Ex 31:13 (P) Ez 20:12, 37:28, 39:7; (z) with ytrbd Ez 5:13, 17:21, cf. Œy yna rva W[d>yE Ez 20:26. c. after yKi in various combinations Lv 11:44, 11:45, Nu 35:34 (P), Lv 20:7, 20:26, 21:8, 21:15, 21:23, 22:16, 24:22, 25:17, 26:1, 26:44 (all H); Ex 15:26 (R) Is 41:13, 43:3, 61:8, Je 9:23, Ez 12:25, 21:4, Zc 10:6, Mal 3:6. d. emphatic Ex 6:8, 12:12, Lv 26:2, 26:45, Nu 3:13, 3:41, 3:45 (all P); Lv 18:5, 18:6, 18:21, 19:12, 19:14, 19:16, 19:18, 19:28, 19:30, 19:32, 19:37, 21:12, 22:2, 22:3, 22:8, 22:30, 22:31, 22:33 (all H) Is 43:15; with ~hyhla Ex 29:46; with ^yhla Is 48:17; with ~kyhla Lv 23:43, 25:38, 25:55, Nu 10:10, 15:41, 15:41 (P) Lv 18:2, 18:4, 18:30, 19:2, 19:3, 19:4, 19:10, 19:25, 19:31, 19:34, 19:36, 20:24, 23:22, 26:13 (all H) Ez 20:7, 20:19, Jo 2:27; with vDeq;m. Lv 20:8, 22:9, 22:32 (H), with yhrbd Nu 14:35 (P) Ez 5:15 + (11 t. Ez); with clauses Is 27:3, 41:4, 41:17, 42:6, 42:8, 45:5, 45:6, 45:7, 45:8, 45:18, 45:19, 45:21, 60:22, Je 17:10, 32:27, Ez 14:4, 14:7, 14:9, 34:24; † hwhy ykinOa' is used in the Ten Words Ex 20:2, 20:5 = Dt 5:6, 5:9 cited Psalm 81:11, Ho 12:10, 13:4; elsewhere only Ex 4:11 (J) Is 43:11, 44:24, 51:15. 3. hwhy is also used with several predicates, to form sacred names of holy places of Yahweh ~wlv hwhy Gn 22:14 (J); y~n hwhy Ex 17:15 (E) ~ylv hwhy Ju 6:24 wnqdc hwhy Je 33:16 (cf. 23:6 where it is applied to the Messiah); hM'v+" hwhy Ez 48:35.—On combinations such as Œy rh;, tAab'c. Œy etc., v. rh;, ab'c', etc. p. 249, 838

Note.—Bonk:ZAW 1891, 126 ff. seems to shew that as prefix, in comp. n.pr., Ahy> is the oldest and the latest form and that Ay is intermediate, belonging to the earlier post-exilic period until the time of Chr; occasional copyists’ mistakes being taken into the account.
 
 
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A CONCISE HEBREW
AND ARAMAIC LEXICON
OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
Based upon the Lexical Work of
LUDWIG KOEHLER AND WALTER BAUMGARTNER

BY WILLIAM L. HOLLADAY

Cytat:
3193 hwhy
hwhy: the name of God, first in Gn 24; Qr yn"doa], hence printed texts hw"hy>; for pronunciation (almost certainly <i>yahweh</i>), etymology, occurrence &c. see comm. & theologies; w. prep. hwhyB;, ŒK;, Œl;; hwhyw:. (pg 130)
 
 
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Fausset's Bible dictionary
Cytat:
1911 Jehovah; Yahweh

1911.01 Jahaveh or Yahaveh is probahly the correct form (the vowel pointing in Jehovah is derived from A-d-o-n-ay) from the substantive verb haawah (found only six times in the Bible; obsolete in Moses' time; retained in Chaldee and Syriac from a time anterior to the division of the Semitic languages), for the more modern haayah(HSN-1961), to be; a proof of the great antiquity of the name: "I AM THAT I AM" is the key of the name (Exo. 3:14), expressing unchanging Being. The name was old and known long before; it appears compounded in Jo-chebed and Mor-iah, and simply in Gen. 2 and afterward. But its significance in relation to God's people was new, and now first becoming experimentally known. (See GENESIS, GOD, EXODUS) Exo. 6:2,3: "I am JEHOVAH, and I appeared unto Abraham,... by the name of God Almighty (El-Shaddai), but by My name JEHOVAH was I not known": its full and precious import is only now about to be revealed. To the patriarchs He was known, when giving the promises, as GOD, Almighty to fulfill them (Gen. 17:1); to Moses as Jehovah unchangeably faithful (Mal. 3:6) in keeping them; compare Heb. 13:8, which identifies Jesus with Jehovah. 'Elohiym(HSN-430) can do all that He wills; Yahweh(HSN-3068) will do all that He has promised. 'Elohiym (the plural expressing the fullness of God's powers) is appropriate to creation (Gen. 1--2:3); JEHOVAH ELOHIM to paradise and to the covenant of grace at the fall; the combination identifies the Jehovah of the moral government with the Elohim of creation. If JEHOVAH had been a name of more recent introduction, the whole nation would never have accepted it with such universal reverence. Elohim appears in the trial of Abraham's faith (Gen. 22); Jehovah, in its triumph. The last 19 chapters of Genesis, from Jacob's meeting the angels and Esau, have Elohim alone (except in the history of Judah and Pharez, Gen. 38; ; and Joseph's first entrance into Egypt, Gen. 39; ; and Jacob's dying exclamation, Gen. 49:18: the beginning and close of the long period of sorrow and patient waiting) to prepare by contrast for the fuller revelation to Moses, when Jehovah is made known in its full and experimental preciousness. "To be made known" (Exo. 6:3) means to be manifested in act (Ps. 9:17; 48:3-6), making good in fact all that was implied in the name (Ezek. 20:9) (noda`tiy). The name was not new to Israel, for it occurs before Exo. 6:3 in 3:16; 4:1. ELOHIM, from 'aalah "to be strong" (Furst), rather than from Arabic aliha astonishment, alaha worship (Hengstenberg), the Deity, expresses His eternal power and Godhead manifested in nature, commanding our reverence; JEHOVAH the Personal God in covenant with His people, manifesting boundless mercy, righteousness, and faithfulness to His word. So "Immanuel" is used not of the mere appellation, but of His proving in fact to be what the name means (Isa. 7:14). The "I AM" (Exo. 3:14) is to be filled up thus: I am to My people all whatever they want. Prayer is to supply the ellipsis, pleading God's covenanted promises: light, life, peace, salvation, glory, their exceeding great reward, etc. I am all that My word declares, and their threefold nature, body, soul, and spirit, requires. I am always all this to them (John 8:58). "Before Abraham began, to be (Greek) I am" (Mt. 28:20). The Jews by a misunderstanding of Lev. 24:16 ("utters distinctly" instead of "blasphemeth") fear to use the name, saying instead "the name," "the four lettered name," "the great and terrible name." So Septuagint, Vulgate, and even KJV (except in four places "Jehovah": Isa. 12:2; 26:4; Exo. 6:3; Ps. 83:18) has "THE LORD," which in CAPITALS represents JEHOVAH, in small letters Adonai. Maimonides restricts its use to the priests' blessings and to the sanctuary; others to the high priest on the day of atonement, when entering the holy of holies. The Samaritans pronounced the name Yabe (Theodoret); found also in Epiphanius; Yahu in such names as Obadiah (Obad-yahu). So that Jahveh or Yahveh seems the correct pronunciation. The Hebrews said the Elohim, in opposition to false gods; but never the Jehovah, for Jehovah means the true God only. Again, My God, 'Elohay(HSN-430), but not My Jehovah, for Jehovah by itself means this covenant relation to one. Again, the Elohim of Israel; but not the Jehovah of Israel, for there is no other Jehovah. Again, the living Elohim, but not the living Jehovah; for Jehovah means this without the epithet. Jehovah is in Old Testament the God of redemption. The correlative of Elohim is man, of Jehovah redeemed man. Elohim is God in nature, Jehovah God in grace (Exo. 34:6,7). Elohim is the God of providence; Jehovah is the God of promise and prophecy; hence, the prophets' formula is, "thus saith Jehovah," not Elohim. Elohim is wider in meaning, embracing the representatives of Deity, angels and human judges and rulers (Ps. 82:6; John 10:34,35). Jehovah is deeper, the incommunicable name. The more frequent use of the name Jehovah from Samuel's time is due to the religious revival then inaugurated, and to the commencement of the regular school of prophets. In the first four verses of the Bhagavat God says to Brahma, "I was at first ... afterward I AM THAT WHICH IS, and He who must remain am I." (Sir W. Jones).
 
 
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THE NEW INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE

J. D. Douglas, Revising Editor Merrill C. Tenney, General Editor, First Edition Steven Barabas, Associate Editor, First Edition Consulting Editors for the Revision: F. F. Bruce, Walter A. Elwell, Thomas E. McComiskey, J. A. Motyer, Peter Toon

Zondervan Publishing House
Grand Rapids, Michigan

A Division of HarperCollins Publishers
Cytat:
JEHOVAH. A misleading representation in English of the only name (as distinct from titles) of God in the OT. Since it is uncertain what vowels should be attached to the Hebrew consonants YHWH that make up the divine name, actual pronunciation must remain hypothetical, but there are reasonable grounds for thinking that the name was Yahweh. At a late date it became a matter of binding scruple not to pronounce the divine name, and Jews (in reading the Scriptures) customarily substituted the noun adhonai, which means “Lord.” LXX followed this lead, using the Greek kyrios, “Lord,” to stand for the divine name—a significant thing in the light of the usual NT designation of Jesus as kyrios. But the formulation “Jehovah” arose by inserting the vowels of adhonai into the consonants YHWH, thus producing a name that never was!
According to Exodus 6:2-3, the name YHWH had not been used prior to Moses as a meaningful understanding of the divine nature. When the patriarchs used the name, it was simply as a label and had not yet become a revelation of the nature of God. This is, in fact, an accurate statement of what we find in Genesis. For example, in Genesis 17:1 Yahweh appeared to Abram, but the revelation vouchsafed was not “I am Yahweh” but “I am El Shaddai.” We must return to Exodus 3:13-15 for the moment when the theological significance of Yahweh was opened to Moses. We notice the following: (1) The name is related to the Hebrew verb “to be”; and it must be pointed out that while this verb cannot help meaning “to exist,” its characteristic force is “to be actually present,” “to be a present reality.” (2) The form Yahweh, as a part of the verb “to be,” could be translated either “I am actively present” or “I make to be actively present.” Thus “I am who I am” means either “I am actively present as and when I choose” or “I bring to pass whatever I choose.” In context Moses is made alert to the active presence of Yahweh in the coming events (the Passover-redemption and the Exodus) or to the fact that as sovereign God, he is bringing these events to pass by his own determination, volition, and power. Thus, in his very nature (as summed up in his name), the Lord identifies himself with redemption, the blood of the lamb, and the choosing out of his people for himself. It is important to note, though, that Moses is not left simply to watch unfolding events and make the best interpretation of them that he can. Exodus 3-4; 6:1-8 show that Yahweh is a God who speaks before he is a God who acts. Moses is made wise before the events, so that when they happen, they are a confirmation of the word that has preceded them, thus making the revelation of God doubly certain. Yahweh is thus, fundamentally, the covenant-Redeemer, the God who brought his people out of Egypt (Exod 20:1 ff.).
Two further points must be mentioned. First, in the light of the total biblical revelation in the Old and New Testaments, the name Yahweh is not to be identified only with God the Father, but rather with the Holy Trinity. The way OT passages are made to refer alike to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit demonstrates this; and we should always beware of cramping our theological understanding by thinking of the God of the OT simply as God the Father—while at the same time recognizing that the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, while latent in the OT, is not discoverable there without the definitive revelation of the NT. Second, our English Bibles generally (the Jerusalem Bible is an exception) follow the scruple that avoids using the divine name. Printers have agreed on the convention that Yahweh is represented by the word “LORD ”—in caps and small caps. When adhonai is used independently and in its own right in the OT as a divine title, it appears as “Lord.”——JAM
 
 
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Niestety, nie jestem informatykiem i bede wdzieczny, jesli ktos podpowie co zrobic, by hebrajskie litery ukazaly sie poprawnie. Dodam tylko, ze tekst przenosilem z programu Bibleworks7 do Worda i nastepnie wklejalem.
Pozdrawiam.
_________________
Łaska wam i pokój od Boga, Ojca naszego, i od Pana Jezusa Chrystusa. 1 Kor 1:3 (BP)
 
 
EMET 

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EMET:
Kopiowanie nieadekwatne...

JHVH - < j h v h > [ew. y h v h; y h w h >, nie zaś tzw. 'lustrzane odbicie': < h v h j > [ew. h v h y; h w h y]. ;-)

Bardziej w takim stylu --

3847 יהוה [3848] (Hebrew) (page 397) (Strong 3068-69)

יהוה n.pr.dei, v. sub הוה p. 217 ff.

z BDB Hebrew Lexicon

Stephanos, ps. EMET
_________________
„Wielu będzie biegać tu i tam [po hebrajsku: < jᵊszōṭᵊṭû >], i nastanie obfitość prawdziwej wiedzy” -- Daniela 12:4b; ‘PNŚ/ZW’, Przypis.
 
 
nike 

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W Torze np. to jest jest samogłoska zaznaczona pod waw
יְהוָה i powinno się wymawiać Jehwa h wiec trudno jest stwierdzić w 100% jak to imię wypowiadał Mojżesz. ponieważ wszystko zależy gdzie i kto wstawi samogłoskę.
_________________
http://biblos.feen.pl/index.php
 
 
din 

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Nom tekstus receptus...
 
 
bartek212701 


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Jahwe to Jowisz.
_________________
Izaj. 33:6-Mądrość i umiejętność będą utwierdzeniem czasów twoich, siłą i obfitem zbawieniem twem, a bojaźń Pańska skarbem twoim.
 
 
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Kenzo napisał/a:
Niestety, nie jestem informatykiem i bede wdzieczny, jesli ktos podpowie co zrobic, by hebrajskie litery ukazaly sie poprawnie. Dodam tylko, ze tekst przenosilem z programu Bibleworks7 do Worda i nastepnie wklejalem.
Pozdrawiam.



EMET:
Posiadać BW8 i mieć w owym wmontowanego 'HALOTA' [najlepiej]
Dalej: kopia do Worda i kopia do Outlooka i dalej na Forum.

Chodziło mnie nie tyle o czcionki hebrajskie, co o notację Imienia - < y h w h >. Litery hebrajskie piszemy bowiem od prawej do lewej, podczas gdy transkrypcja to już...

Czyli --

יהוה


trans.: < j h v h > [ew.: < j h w h >; < y h v h >; < y h w h >]

Aktualny zapis w BHS i BHQ z notacją na - < jehva(h) > -- יְהוָה


Stephanos, ps. EMET
_________________
„Wielu będzie biegać tu i tam [po hebrajsku: < jᵊszōṭᵊṭû >], i nastanie obfitość prawdziwej wiedzy” -- Daniela 12:4b; ‘PNŚ/ZW’, Przypis.
 
 
bartek212701 


Pomógł: 160 razy
Wiek: 27
Dołączył: 03 Sty 2010
Posty: 9246
Skąd: Lublin
Wysłany: 2012-03-18, 21:41   

Kenzo, łamiesz regulamin :-) bo nie podałes linka skąd cytujesz :-) popraw posty póki czas.
_________________
Izaj. 33:6-Mądrość i umiejętność będą utwierdzeniem czasów twoich, siłą i obfitem zbawieniem twem, a bojaźń Pańska skarbem twoim.
 
 
Kenzo 


Wyznanie: Rzymski Katolik
Wiek: 40
Dołączył: 16 Mar 2012
Posty: 351
Skąd: United Kingdom
Wysłany: 2012-03-18, 21:53   

bartek212701 napisał/a:
Kenzo, łamiesz regulamin :-) bo nie podałes linka skąd cytujesz :-) popraw posty póki czas.

Odwiedz okuliste, a nastepnie przeczytaj naglowki nad cytatami. Pozdrawiam.
 
 
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